Localized English for Ngapak Javanese Speakers as Language Instruction

Agus Husein As Sabiq


This study aimed to investigate the use of local dialect as language instruction in the English classroom and its demotivating factors for Ngapak Javanese speakers. There were four English teachers and 132 students from four schools in the Ngapak Javanese community participating in this research by semi-structured interviews and questionnaires. The findings showed that local variety influenced students’ phonological features, stressing, and intonation. The teachers were indicated having positive attitudes toward the use of local dialect of English. However, they provoked the students to use Bahasa Indonesia as their second language in switching and mixing the code in the teaching and learning process. Lack of vocabulary mastery was also one of the obstacles faced by the teachers. Teachers' perception of the most appropriate implementation of language instruction, teaching strategies, learning resources, and media may lead them to deliver the instruction properly and effectively in improving students’ proficiency. Ngapaknese English could be suggested as a pedagogical implication in the sense of Western Central Java because it is more popular, feasible and practical for students. It also has realistic values in classes, including inspiring students to practice speaking, feasible and cost-efficient.


Ngapaknese English; Language Instruction; World Englishes;

Full Text:



Adityarini, H. (2014). An Examination of the Suitability of a Pluricentric Model of English Language Teaching for Primary Education in Indonesia Hepy Adityarini (Issue August). http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11937/1337

Aimey, O., Francis, G., & Soyer, S. (2005). Kaleidoscope Teacher’s guide Tour. In Ginn and Company. Harcourt Education Limited. https://books.google.com.bd/books?id=ekRJ3RIPBJoC&pg=PA6&dq=dialect+and+cognitive+development&hl=en&sa=X&ei=jH7VUYvsAcfLrQe114C4DQ&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=dialect and cognitive development&f=false.

Aitchison, J., & Wardaugh, R. (1987). An Introduction to Sociolinguistics. The British Journal of Sociology, 38(3), 436. https://doi.org/10.2307/590702.

Amalia, S. D., Laila, M., & Adityarini, H. (2017). The Place of Javanese English Among Globally Known Varieties of World Englishes. 123–128. http://journal.ummgl.ac.id/index.php/urecol/article/view/1181

Anderson, B. R., & Keeler, W. (1988). Javanese Shadow Plays, Javanese Selves. World Literature Today. https://doi.org/10.2307/40143761.

Andi-Pallawa, B., & Fiptar Abdi Alam, A. (2013). A Comparative Analysis between English and Indonesian Phonological Systems. International Journal of English Language Education, 1(3). https://doi.org/10.5296/ijele.v1i3.3892.

Andriyanti, E. (2019). Language Shift among Javanese Youth and Their Perception of Local and National Identities. GEMA Online® Journal of Language Studies. https://doi.org/10.17576/gema-2019-1903-07.

Apriani, E., Anshori, S., & Edy, S. (2019). Eksistensi English Zone Sebagai Media Penerapan Kemampuan Berbahasa Inggris Mahasiswa Program Studi Tadris Bahasa Inggris IAIN CURUP. Cendekia: Jurnal Kependidikan Dan Kemasyarakatan, 17(2), 317-332.

As Sabiq, A. H. (2018). Improving Students’ Motivation and Reading Skills in ELT through Audio Visual Media. Diksi, 25(1), 57–68. https://doi.org/10.21831/diksi.v25i1.16007.

Aziz, E. (2003). Indonesian English: what’s det tuh? TEFLIN Journal, 14(1), 140–149. https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.15639/teflinjournal.v14i1/140-148.

Bernhardt, E. B., & Krashen, S. D. (1989). Second Language Acquisition and Second Language Learning. The Modern Language Journal. https://doi.org/10.2307/326882.

Chan, J. Y. H., & Evans, S. (2011). Choosing an appropriate pronunciation model for the ELT classroom: A Hong Kong perspective. Journal of Asia TEFL.

Cohn, A. C., & Ravindranath, M. (2014). Local languges in Indonesia: Language maintenance or language shift? Linguistik Indonesia, 32(2), 131–148. http://www.mlindonesia.org/images/files/Agustus 2014.pdf#page=33

Conners, T. J., & Klok, J. Vander. (2016). Language documentation of colloquial javanese varieties *. 2016 Annual Conference of the Canadian Linguistic Association.

Contreras, F. A. M. B. (2018). Perceptual representations in Interlanguage Phonology : subcategorial learning in late-learners with a smaller vowel inventory [University of Manchester]. http://www.fernandabarrientos.cl/thesis.pdf

Cook, V. (1999). Going beyond the Native Speaker in Language Teaching. TESOL Quarterly, 33(2), 185. https://doi.org/10.2307/3587717

Crismore, A., Ngeow, K. Y. hwa, & Soo, K. S. (1996). Attitudes toward English in Malaysia. World Englishes. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-971X.1996.tb00118.x

Dardjowidjojo, S. (2000). English Teaching in Indonesia. EA Journal.

Dewi, R., Mujiyanto, J., & Sukrisno, A. (2017). The Influence of Brebes Javanese Dialect toward Students ‟ Pronunciation of English Speech Sounds ( A Case Study in Sman 1 Brebes ). 1st English Language and Literature International Conference (ELLiC), 189–199.

Edwards, R., & Holland, J. (2013). What is Qualitative Interviewing? In What is Qualitative Interviewing? Bloomsbury Academic. https://doi.org/10.5040/9781472545244

Fadillah, R. (2014). Learning motivation and English achievement of students at politeknik Negeri semarang Central Java. Jurnal Penelitian Humaniora, 15(2), 89–98.

Farrell, T. S. C., & Martin, S. (2009). To Teach Standard English or World Englishes? A Balanced Approach to Instruction. English Teaching Forum, 2, 2–7.

Flege, J. E. (1988). Factors affecting degree of perceived foreign accent in English sentences. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. https://doi.org/10.1121/1.396876

Friedlander, P. (2011). Learning languages as expressions of cultures. Electronic Journal of Foreign Language Teaching, 8, 300–311.

Hamied, F. A. (2012). English in Multicultural and Multilingual Indonesian Education. In A. Kirkpatrick & R. Sussex (Eds.), English as an international language in Asia: Implications for language education (pp. 63–78). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-4578-0_5.

Hidayat, A. F. (2006). Ensiklopedia bahasa-bahasa, peristilahan dalam bahasa. Pustaka Grafika.

Holmes, J. (2013). An Introduction to Sociolinguistics. In An Introduction to Sociolinguistics. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315833057

Inal, S., & Turhanlı, I. (2005). Teachers’ opinions on the use of L1 in EFL classes. Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies, 1(1), 861–875. https://doi.org/10.17263/jlls.631526

Kachru, B. (1992). World Englishes: approaches, issues and resources. Language Teaching, 25(1), 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0261444800006583

Kachru, Y. (2008). Cultures, Contexts, and World Englishes. In Cultures, Contexts, and World Englishes. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203891346

Kioko, A. N., & Muthwii, M. (2003). English variety for the public domain in kenya: Speakers’ attitudes and views. Language, Culture and Curriculum. https://doi.org/10.1080/07908310308666662

Kirkpatrick, Andy. (2011). English as an Asian lingua franca and the multilingual model of ELT. Language Teaching, 44(2), 212–224. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0261444810000145

Kirkpatrick, Andy, & Liddicoat, A. J. (2017). Language education policy and practice in East and Southeast Asia. Language Teaching, 50(2), 155–188. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0261444817000027

Komariah, A. (2018). Problems in Pronouncing the English Sounds Faced by the Students of SMPN. Journal of English Language and Pedagogy, 1(2), 1–10.

Kosasih, M. M. (2017). Native Language Interference in Learning English Pronunciation: A Case Study at a private university in West Java, Indonesia. International Journal of Education and Research, 5(2), 135–150. https://www.ijern.com/journal/2017/February-2017/11.pdf

Krashen, S. (2013). Second Language Acquisition: Theory, Applications, and Some Conjectures. In Mexico City: Cambridge University.

Lamb, M., & Coleman, H. (2008). Literacy in English and the transformation of self and society in Post-Soeharto Indonesia. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. https://doi.org/10.2167/beb493.0

Lee, K. Y. (2012). Teaching intercultural english learning/teaching in world englishes: Some classroom activities in South Korea. English Teaching, 11(4), 190–205. http://education.waikato.ac.nz/research/files/etpc/files/2012v11n4nar2.pdf

Li, D. C. S. (2009a). Researching non-native speakers’ views toward intelligibility and identity: Bridging the gap between moral high grounds and down-to-earth concerns. In English as an International Language: Perspectives and Pedagogical Issues. https://doi.org/10.21832/9781847691231-008

Li, D. C. S. (2009b). Researching non-native speakers’ views toward intelligibility and identity: Bridging the gap between moral high grounds and down-to-earth concerns. English as an International Language: Perspectives and Pedagogical Issues, January, 81–118. https://doi.org/10.21832/9781847691231-008

Marefat, F., & Nushi, M. (2012). Combating Fossilization through Feedback: Does it Work? Fahimeh Marefat. 15(1), 43–71.

Mareva, R., Kaburise, P. K., & Klu, E. K. (2016). Teaching ‘Standard English’ or local, code-switched New Englishes in schools in ‘Outer Circle’ countries? Insights from selected secondary school teachers of English in Zimbabwe. IRA International Journal of Education and Multidisciplinary Studies (ISSN 2455–2526), 4(1), 113–124. https://doi.org/10.21013/jems.v4.n1.p13

Melchers, G., & Shaw, P. (2011). World Englishes. An Introduction. In English language series.

Moedjito, M. (2008). Priorities in English Pronunciation Teaching in EFL Classrooms. Kata Petra, 10(02), 129–142.

Morganna, R. (2019). Indonesian EFL Teacher’s Ideologies of Lingua Culture. ENGLISH FRANCA : Academic Journal of English Language and Education, 3(01), 15. https://doi.org/10.29240/ef.v3i01.630

Njeru, M. G. (2013). Dialect and the Learning of English as a Second Language in Kenya. English Linguistics Research, 2(1), 128–133. https://doi.org/10.5430/elr.v2n1p128

Olatunji, S. (2012). English Language Teachers’ Attitudes to the Promotion of the Standard Nigerian English: A Survey from a Nigerian City. African Research Review. https://doi.org/10.4314/afrrev.v6i3.20

Ozen, S. O. (2017). The effect of motivation on student achievement. The Factors Effecting Student Achievement: Meta-Analysis of Empirical Studies, 4(1), 35–56. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-56083-0_3

Pablo, I. M., Lengeling, M. M., Zenil, B. R., Crawford, T., & Goodwin, D. (2011). Students and Teachers’ Reasons for Using the First Language Within the Foreign Language Classroom (French and English) in Central Mexico. PROFILE Issues in Teachers’ Professional Development Journal, 13(02). http://www.scielo.org.co/pdf/prf/v13n2/v13n2a09.pdf

Patton, M. (1990). Qualitative Evaluation and Research Methods. In Qualitative Evaluation and Research Methods. https://doi.org/10.1002/nur.4770140111

Pranita, D. (2014). Teacher’s Corrective Feedback on Students’ Spoken Errors in an EFL Classroom. The 61th TEFLIN International Conference, 61, 1127–1130.

Pranowo, J. (2006). Word-Attack Skills for Indonesian Learners. TEFLIN, 17(2), 107–114. http://journal.teflin.org/index.php/journal/article/download/63/59

Prastiwi, Y. (2013). Transmitting Local Cultural Knowledge through English as Foreign Language (EFL) Learning as a Means of Fostering “Unity in Diversity.” Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies. https://doi.org/10.5901/ajis.2013.v2n3p507

Purnama, Y. (2018). The Influence of the First Language to English Performance of EFL Learners of IAIN Purwokerto. ELITE JOURNAL : Journal of English Linguistics, Literature, and Education, 1(1), 2850–9938. www.journal.elitenglish.org

R. Belibi, P. (2013). Teaching a Standard Variety of English or a Local Standard: The Case of Cameroon. International Journal of English Language Education, 1(3), 172–185. https://doi.org/10.5296/ijele.v1i3.3956

Reiter, B. (2017). Theory and Methodology of Exploratory Social Science Research. International Journal of Science and Research Methodology.

Richards, J. C. (2011). Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics. In Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics (4th Editio). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315833835

Rosser, A. (2018). Beyond Access: Making Indonesia’s Education Work. In Lowy Institute For International Policy. https://think-asia.org/handle/11540/8034

Sabiq, A., Purnama, Y., & Mulyadi, D. (2019). Pedagogical-culture Implementation in English Classroom of Islamic Boarding School. Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Language, Literature and Society for Education. https://doi.org/10.4108/eai.21-12-2018.2282773

Safnil. (2013). A Genre-Based Analysis on The Introductions of Research Articles Written by Indonesian Academics. TEFLIN Journal, 24(2), 180–200. https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.15639/teflinjournal.v24i2/180-200

Shuchi, S. (2013). The Effect of Bangla dialect on English Language Teaching : Teachers ’ Perspectives and Attitudes The Effect of Bangla dialect on English Language Teaching : Teachers ’ Perspectives and Attitudes Submitted By :

Soedjito. (1986). Pemakaian bahasa Jawa di pesisir utara Jawa Timur bagian sempit (pp. xviii, 110 p.). Pusat Pembinaan dan Pengembangan Bahasa, Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan. file://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/000833579

Stebbins, R. (2012). Exploratory Research in the Social Sciences. In Exploratory Research in the Social Sciences. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781412984249

Subandowo, D. (2017). The Language Interference in English Speaking Ability for EFL Learners. The Fifth International Seminar on English Language and Teaching (ISELT-5), 205–210.

Sudartini, S. (2012). Inserting Local Culture in English Language Teaching To Promote. Pendidikan Karakter, 01(1), 45–54. https://doi.org/10.21831/JPK.V0I1.1451

Suharsih, S. (2017). The Use of Banten-Dialect Javanese Language as the Identity Marker of Banten Society Viewed from Gender Perspective. IJELTAL (Indonesian Journal of English Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics). https://doi.org/10.21093/ijeltal.v1i2.17

Sukarno, S. (2010). The Reflection of the Javanese Cultural Concepts in the Politeness of Javanese. K@ta. https://doi.org/10.9744/kata.12.1.59-71

Swedberg, R. (2018). On the uses of exploratory research and exploratory studies in social science. In Producing Knowledge (pp. 1–37).

Syahri, I., & Susanti, R. (2016). An Analysis of Local and Target Culture Integration in the English Textbooks for Senior High School in Palembang. Journal of Education and Human Development, 5(2), 97–102. https://doi.org/10.15640/jehd.v5n2a11

Tegegne, W. (2015). The Use of Dialects in Education and Its Impacts on Students’ Learning and Achievements. Education Journal, 4(5), 263. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.edu.20150405.22

Thornbury, S. (2013). Essential Teacher Knowledge. ELT Journal, 67(1), 131–133. https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/ccs075

Tiono, N. I., & Yosta, A. M. (2008). a Study of English Phonological Errors Produced By English Department Students. K@Ta, 10(1), 79–112. https://doi.org/10.9744/kata.10.1.79-112

Tollefson, J. W. (2012). Reconsidering “Target Language.” Language Research Bulletin, 17, 143–152.

Wardhana, D. E. C., & Apriani, E. Maxim Variation, Conventional, and Particularized Implicature on Students’ Conversation.

Yuliati, Y. (2014). Final Consonant Clusters Simplification by Indonesian Learners of English and Its Intelligibility in International Context. International Journal of Social Science and Humanity, 4(6), 513–517. https://doi.org/10.7763/ijssh.2014.v4.409

Yulika, R., Rahman, U., & Sewang, A. M. (2019). The Effect of Emotional Intelligence and Learning Motivation on Student Achievement. 39(1), 1–8. https://doi.org/10.2991/icamr-18.2019.94

Zulfikar, T. (2018). The Making of Indonesian Education: An overview on Empowering Indonesian Teachers. Journal of Indonesian Social Sciences and Humanities, 2, 13–39. https://doi.org/10.14203/jissh.v2i0.19

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.29240/ef.v4i2.1818


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 Agus Husein As Sabiq

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


CrossrefMorarefGoogle ScholarDimensionsIndonesia One SearchAcademia.EduPKP IndexBASE

free web stats English Franca's Visitors
Creative Commons LicenseThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.